This is an actual copy of an CERF (Canine Eye Registration Foundation) clearance certificate. Inside the red box I have drawn on the certificate is the actual CERF registry number. This number contains elements that give you additional information about this exam.
Here is how it breaks down:
With permanent identification: LR-54321
Without permanent identification: LR-54321N
WHAT IS CERF?
The Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) is an organization that was founded by a group of concerned, purebred owner/breeders who recognized that the quality of their dog's lives were being affected by heritable eye disease. CERF was then established in conjunction with cooperating, board certified, veterinary ophthalmologists, as a means to accomplish the goal of elimination of heritable eye disease in all purebred dogs by forming a centralized, national registry.
The CERF Registry not only registers those dog's certified free of
heritable eye disease by members of the American College of Veterinary
Ophthalmologists (ACVO), but also collects data on all dogs examined by ACVO Diplomates. This data is used to form the
CERF data base which
is useful in researching trends in eye disease and breed susceptibility. Not
only is this data useful to clinicians and students of ophthalmology, but to
interested breed clubs and individual breeders and owners of specific
HOW DOES C.E.R.F. WORK?
After the painless examination of the dogs eyes, the ACVO Diplomate will complete the CERF form and indicate any specific disease(s) found. Breeding advice will be offered based on guidelines established for that particular breed by the genetics Committee of the ACVO. Bear in mind that CERF and the ACVO are separate, but cooperating entities. The ACVO only provides their professional services and expertise to ensure that uniform standards are upheld for the certification of dog's eyes with the CERF organization.
If the dog is certified to be free of heritable eye disease, you can then send in the completed owner's copy of the CERF form with the appropriate fee ($10.00 for the original CERF Registration, or $7.50 if it is a recertification). CERF has adopted a policy effective Jan. 1st, 2001 (by post mark) that a permanent identification in the form of microchip, tattoo or DNA profile will be needed for any dog to be registered with CERF. The certification is good for 12 months from the date of the exam and afterwards the dog must be reexamined and recertified to maintain its' registration with CERF.
Regardless of the outcome of the dog's exam, the research copy of the
CERF form will be sent to the CERF office at Purdue University where
its information will be entered into the database for that specific breed.
This information will be used in generating research reports, but the
individual dog's identities will become confidential and will never be
CATARACTS- A Common Ocular Disease In Dogs
by Sheryl Krohne,
DVM, MS Diplomate ACVO,
ACVO Genetics Committee/CERF Liaison
Cataract is a common term used to describe changes in
the lens of the eye that we usually attribute to older age, and call an
"aging change." Many people have surgery to remove cataracts and
we all know someone who has had cataract surgery, if we haven't had to
undergo the procedure ourselves. It has a very high success rate in people,
has few complications and is even an outpatient procedure performed under
local anesthesia. This disease also occurs as an aging change in the eyes of
dogs. Cataracts diagnosed in younger dogs are from genetic causes. This
means that dogs can inherit cataracts as a "disease" from their
parents. We will discuss the different types of cataracts later in this
article. First, we want to explain where the lens is, what it does, and what
a cataract looks like when it forms in the lens.
The lens in located inside the eye and is a soft, transparent structure
without blood vessels (see picture below). It changes shape when small
muscles pull on the lens and thus allows the eye to focus on views both near
and far away. A capsule surrounds the lens and is necessary to supply shape
and nutrition for the lens, as well as providing an anchor for the small
muscles. A typical change that occurs in the lenses of dogs and people when
they are older is called nuclear or lenticular sclerosis. This change occurs
before cataracts form and typically is seen in dogs after they are 8 to 10
years old. The eyes will look gray, silver or bluish to the owner. The
silver appearing color should come from the "inside" of the eye,
not the surface. The surface or cornea should still appear clear and the
iris or colored part of the eye should still be clearly visible (see
A cataract is defined in the CERF book* as "a partial or complete
opacity of the lens and/or its capsule. In cases where cataracts are
complete and affect both eyes, blindness results." Cataracts are among
the most common intraocular lesions and a leading cause of vision loss in
the dog. Cataracts may be caused by genetics, trauma, ocular inflammation,
diabetes mellitus, genetic retinal atrophy, persistent pupillary membranes,
persistent hyaloid remnants, specific nutritional deficiencies, congenital
abnormalities and uncommonly by other specific metabolic diseases. The size
of cataracts is also highly variable. They may be very small and not affect
vision, or complete and cause blindness. If they are incomplete, they may
only be present in the cortex or outside layers of the lens, or in the
nucleus or center of the lens. Some types of cataracts only affect the
capsule, which covers the lens. In every case, however, the cataract is an
opaque place in the lens. It doesn't affect vision when it is small because
the dog can see around it. Recommendations published in the CERF book
include, "breeding is not recommended for any dog demonstrating partial
or complete opacity of the lens or its capsule unless the examiner has also
checked the space for significance of the above punctate cataract unknown.
The prudent approach is to assume cataracts to be hereditary except in
unusual cases specifically known to be associated with other causes."
Some of the cataracts that are small at the time of diagnosis will
progress until they cause complete blindness. This prediction of the
behavior or progression of a disease is termed "prognosis." It is
important to discuss the prognosis for the cataract diagnosed in your dog
with the veterinary ophthalmologist so that you know what to expect. Some
cataracts that are genetic will progress and some will not. This is
dependent on the breed and where the cataract is located within the lens.
Treatment for cataracts is recommended for one of two reasons. Some
cataracts will cause inflammation in the eye. This type of inflammation will
cause squinting, tearing or watering of the eye, increased redness of the
white of the eye, and sometimes increased squinting in the light. Your
veterinarian or veterinary ophthalmologist should examine your dog as soon
as possible because inflammation caused by cataracts can damage the eye. In
some cases the damage will lead to glaucoma or retinal detachment,
especially if not treated correctly. The other treatment is for blindness
from cataracts. The surgery to remove cataracts is called
phacoemulsification. An instrument inserted into the eye during surgery
produces ultrasonic waves. The cataract is emulsified by the ultrasound and
removed by aspiration. Many times a plastic lens can be placed into the eye
after the cataractous lens has been removed. This replacement lens improves
near vision for the dog. Surgery for cataracts can only be performed if the
rest of the eye is healthy and if the dog can undergo general anesthesia.
Unlike the same surgery for people, dogs must have general anesthesia for
this procedure. Success rates quoted in the literature range from 90-95%
restoration of functional vision 6 months after surgery.
Genetic cataracts are diagnosed in many breeds of dogs and are initially
diagnosed from 2 months up to 7 years of age. The size of the cataract,
whether blindness results from the cataract and the age of first diagnosis
is breed dependent. Genetic cataracts will be discussed in the next